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* تفسير Al Qushairi Tafsir

{ بِسمِ ٱلله الرَّحْمٰنِ الرَّحِيـمِ }

In the Name of God the Compassionate the Merciful The bāÌ in bismillāh [“in the name of God”] is a grammatical particle of implication. That is to say “by means of God” bi-Llāh new things become manifest and by means of Him created things exist. There is nothing from any newly created thing ḥādith makhlūq or sequence of events ḥāṣil mansūq; or from any perceived thing ʿayn or trace left by a thing athar etc.; or anything else from rocks or clay grass or trees any impression left on the ground rasm or ruins left standing Ṭalal or any determination ḥukm or causes ʿilal [of things or events] that has existence wujūd except by means of the Real. The Real is its sovereign. Its beginning is from the Real and its return is to the Real. Through Him the one who declares the unity [of God] finds bihi wajada man waḥḥada and through Him the rejecter abandons faith wa-bihi jahada man alḥada. Through Him the one who acknowledges comes to know bihi ʿarafa man iʿtarafa and through Him the one who commits [harmful acts] remains behind wa-bihi takhallafa man iqtarafa. He said “In the name of God” rather than “In God.” According to some people this is a way of seeking blessing through the mention of His name. According to others it is because of the difference between this [wording] and oaths. According to scholars it is because the name ism is the thing that is named musammā. In the view of the people of deep knowledge ahl al-ʿirfān [the wording is such] in order to seek the purification of hearts from attachments li-istiṣfāÌ al-qulūb min al-ʿalāÌiq and the liberation of the innermost selves from obstacles li-istikhlāṣ al-asrār ʿan al-ʿawāÌiq so that the word “God” may enter into a clean heart qalb munaqqā and purified innermost self sirr muṣaffa. Upon the mention of this verse some people are reminded by the [let- ter] bāÌ of His beneficence birr with His friends and by the [letter] sīn of His secret sirr with his chosen ones and by the [letter] mīm of His grace minna to the people of [His] friendship ahl al-walāya. They know that by His beneficence they come to know His secret and by His grace to them they preserve His command and by Him سبحانه وتعالى they recognize His measure.