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* تفسير Kashani Tafsir

{ قَالَ مَا مَنَعَكَ أَلاَّ تَسْجُدَ إِذْ أَمَرْتُكَ قَالَ أَنَاْ خَيْرٌ مِّنْهُ خَلَقْتَنِي مِن نَّارٍ وَخَلَقْتَهُ مِن طِينٍ }

[He [Iblīs] said, 'I am better than him.] You created me from fire, while him You created from clay': You created the estimative faculty from the subtlest parts of the animal spirit that comes into being in the heart as a result of the vaporousness and delicateness of the mixtures and rises to the brain. That spirit is the hottest element in the body, which is why he referred to as 'fire'. Heat necessitates ascent and rising. We have already mentioned how every spiritual faculty (quwwa malakūtiyya) is aware of the specific qualities of the one below it but not of the one above it and [is aware] of the perfections of the body and their specific qualities as well as the perfections of the animal spirit and their specific qualities: this [faculty's] veiledness from the spiritual human perfections and those [perfections] of the heart represents the image (ṣūra) of its denial and the causative factor in its recalcitrance, its haughtiness and its transgressing [the bounds] of its stage in judging intelligible meanings and disengaged realities. The refusal to accept the judgement of the intellect is [represented by] the image (ṣūra) of its refusal to prostrate.