(And when thou (O Muhammad) art among them and arrangest (their) worship for them…) [4:102]. The teacher Abu ‘Uthman al-Za‘farani al-Muqri’ informed us in the year 25> Abu Muhammad ‘Abd Allah ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Ali ibn Ziyad al-Suddi in the year 363> Abu Sa‘id al-Fadl ibn Muhammad al-Jazari in the Sacred Mosque, Mecca, in 304> ‘Ali ibn Ziyad al-Lahji> Abu Qurrah Musa ibn Tariq> Sufyan> Mansur> Mujahid> Abu ‘Ayyash al-Zurraqi who said: “We performed the prayer of Zuhr with the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, upon which the idolaters exclaimed: ‘They were in a vulnerable situation, why did we not attack them by surprise?’ Then they said: ‘There shall come another prayer which is more beloved to them than their own fathers, which is the midafternoon (‘Asr) prayer’. Gabriel, peace be upon him, then came down with these verses between the Zuhr and the ‘Asr prayers. (And when thou (O Muhammad) art among them and arrangest (their) worship for them) in ‘Usfan, while the idolaters were led by Khalid ibn al-Walid; they were between us and the qiblah, and then He mentioned the prayer of fear”. ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn ‘Abdan informed us> Muhammad ibn ‘Abd Allah ibn Muhammad al-Dabbi> Muhammad ibn Ya‘qub> Ahmad ibn ‘Abd al-Jabbar> Yunus ibn Bukayr> al-Nadr Abu ‘Umar> ‘Ikrimah> Ibn ‘Abbas who said: “The Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, went out and met the idolaters in ‘Usfan. When he performed the Zuhr prayer, and the idolaters saw him bowing and prostrating, they said to each other: ‘This was a missed opportunity for you. If you had raided them then, they would not have felt you coming until you had effectively attacked them’. One of them said: ‘They have another prayer which is more beloved to them than their wives and wealth, so get ready to raid them when they are performing it’. Allah, glorious and majestic is He, then revealed to His Prophet, (And when thou (O Muhammad) art among them and arrangest (their) worship for them) up to the end of the verse, and informed him about the plot of the idolaters and mentioned therein the prayer of fear”.
Asbab Al-Nuzul by Al-Wahidi , trans. Mokrane Guezzou