(Many of the people of the Scripture long to make you disbelievers after your belief…) [2:109]. Said Ibn ‘Abbas: “This verse was revealed about a group of Jews who said to the Muslims after the Battle of Uhud: ‘Could you not see what has happened to you? If you were truly following the truth, you would not have been defeated. Revert, therefore, to our religion; it is far better for you’ ”. Al-Hasan ibn Muhammad al-Farisi informed us>Muhammad ibn ‘Abd Allah ibn al-Fadl> Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn al-Hasan> Muhammad ibn Yahya> Abu’l-Yaman> Shu‘ayb> al-Zuhri> ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn ‘Abd Allah ibn Ka‘b ibn Malik> his father who reported that Ka‘b al-Ashraf the Jew was a poet who used his poetry to satirize the Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, and incite the disbelievers of Quraysh against him. The idolaters and Jews of Medina also used to seriously harm the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, and his Companions upon their arrival to Medina. Allah, exalted is He, commanded his Prophet to endure all that and to forgive them. And it is about them that was revealed (Many of the people of the Scripture long to make you disbelievers after your belief…) up to His saying (Forgive and be indulgent (toward them) until Allah give command…).
Asbab Al-Nuzul by Al-Wahidi , trans. Mokrane Guezzou