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* تفسير Tafsir al-Jalalayn

{ أُحِلَّ لَكُمْ لَيْلَةَ ٱلصِّيَامِ ٱلرَّفَثُ إِلَىٰ نِسَآئِكُمْ هُنَّ لِبَاسٌ لَّكُمْ وَأَنْتُمْ لِبَاسٌ لَّهُنَّ عَلِمَ ٱللَّهُ أَنَّكُمْ كُنتُمْ تَخْتانُونَ أَنْفُسَكُمْ فَتَابَ عَلَيْكُمْ وَعَفَا عَنْكُمْ فَٱلآنَ بَٰشِرُوهُنَّ وَٱبْتَغُواْ مَا كَتَبَ ٱللَّهُ لَكُمْ وَكُلُواْ وَٱشْرَبُواْ حَتَّىٰ يَتَبَيَّنَ لَكُمُ ٱلْخَيْطُ ٱلأَبْيَضُ مِنَ ٱلْخَيْطِ ٱلأَسْوَدِ مِنَ ٱلْفَجْرِ ثُمَّ أَتِمُّواْ ٱلصِّيَامَ إِلَى ٱلَّليْلِ وَلاَ تُبَٰشِرُوهُنَّ وَأَنْتُمْ عَٰكِفُونَ فِي ٱلْمَسَٰجِدِ تِلْكَ حُدُودُ ٱللَّهِ فَلاَ تَقْرَبُوهَا كَذٰلِكَ يُبَيِّنُ ٱللَّهُ ءَايَٰتِهِ لِلنَّاسِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَّقُونَ }

Permitted to you upon the night of the Fast is to go in to your wives in sexual intercourse this was revealed as an abrogation of its unlawfulness during the earliest phase of Islam as well as an abrogation of the unlawfulness of eating and drinking after the night prayer; they are a vestment for you and you are a vestment for them a metaphor for their embraces or their need for one another; God knows that you have been betraying yourselves by having sexual intercourse on the eve of the fast this happened with ‘Umar b. al-Khattāb and others and they apologised to the Prophet s and so He has turned to you relenting before you even turned in repentance and He has pardoned you. So now when it is permitted to you lie with them in sexual intercourse and seek what God has prescribed for you of sexual intercourse or what it produces of offspring; and eat and drink at any time during the night until the white thread is distinct to you from the black thread at daybreak that is the true moment of daybreak which explains the white thread while the explanation of the black thread namely the night has been left out. The whiteness and the darkness of the dawn twilight are likened to two black and white threads in the way they stretch out; then complete the fast from daybreak to the night that is until it arrives after the setting of the sun; and do not lie with them your women while you cleave to the mosques in devotion to God while you are residing therein with the intention of performing i‘tikāf ‘spiritual retreat’. This was a prohibition pertaining to one who used to leave the mosque whilst in a state of i‘tikāf have sexual intercourse with his wife and then return. Those rulings mentioned are God’s bounds delimited by God for His servants so that they do not overstep them; do not approach them lā taqrabūhā is more intense than lā ta‘taddūhā ‘Do not overstep’ used in verses elsewhere. So just as He makes clear to you what has been mentioned God makes clear His signs to people so that they might fear disobeying His prohibitions.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn, trans. Feras Hamza
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