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* تفسير Tafsir al-Jalalayn

{ يٰأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ آمَنُوۤاْ إِذَا تَدَايَنتُم بِدَيْنٍ إِلَىٰ أَجَلٍ مُّسَمًّى فَٱكْتُبُوهُ وَلْيَكْتُب بَّيْنَكُمْ كَاتِبٌ بِٱلْعَدْلِ وَلاَ يَأْبَ كَاتِبٌ أَنْ يَكْتُبَ كَمَا عَلَّمَهُ ٱللَّهُ فَلْيَكْتُبْ وَلْيُمْلِلِ ٱلَّذِي عَلَيْهِ ٱلْحَقُّ وَلْيَتَّقِ ٱللَّهَ رَبَّهُ وَلاَ يَبْخَسْ مِنْهُ شَيْئاً فَإن كَانَ ٱلَّذِي عَلَيْهِ ٱلْحَقُّ سَفِيهاً أَوْ ضَعِيفاً أَوْ لاَ يَسْتَطِيعُ أَن يُمِلَّ هُوَ فَلْيُمْلِلْ وَلِيُّهُ بِٱلْعَدْلِ وَٱسْتَشْهِدُواْ شَهِيدَيْنِ مِّن رِّجَالِكُمْ فَإِن لَّمْ يَكُونَا رَجُلَيْنِ فَرَجُلٌ وَٱمْرَأَتَانِ مِمَّن تَرْضَوْنَ مِنَ ٱلشُّهَدَآءِ أَن تَضِلَّ إِحْدَاهُمَا فَتُذَكِّرَ إِحْدَاهُمَا ٱلأُخْرَىٰ وَلاَ يَأْبَ ٱلشُّهَدَآءُ إِذَا مَا دُعُواْ وَلاَ تَسْأَمُوۤاْ أَن تَكْتُبُوهُ صَغِيراً أَو كَبِيراً إِلَىٰ أَجَلِهِ ذَلِكُمْ أَقْسَطُ عِندَ ٱللَّهِ وَأَقْومُ لِلشَّهَٰدَةِ وَأَدْنَىٰ أَلاَّ تَرْتَابُوۤاْ إِلاَّ أَن تَكُونَ تِجَٰرَةً حَاضِرَةً تُدِيرُونَهَا بَيْنَكُمْ فَلَيْسَ عَلَيْكُمْ جُنَاحٌ أَلاَّ تَكْتُبُوهَا وَأَشْهِدُوۤاْ إِذَا تَبَايَعْتُمْ وَلاَ يُضَآرَّ كَاتِبٌ وَلاَ شَهِيدٌ وَإِن تَفْعَلُواْ فَإِنَّهُ فُسُوقٌ بِكُمْ وَٱتَّقُواْ ٱللَّهَ وَيُعَلِّمُكُمُ ٱللَّهُ وَٱللَّهُ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمٌ }

O you who believe when you contract when you are dealing with a debt such as in prepayment for future delivery of goods or a loan one upon another for a stated a known term write it down as confirmation and security against any dispute; and let a writer write it the contract of debt down between you justly accurately not increasing or decreasing the amount or the terms; and let not any writer refuse to write it down if he is requested for such a task as God has taught him the kāf of ka-mā ‘as’ is semantically connected to the verb ya’ba ‘refuse’ that is just as He has given him the advantage of knowing how to write he should not be niggardly in this respect; so let him write repeated for emphasis and let the debtor dictate to the one writing the contract for he is the one being witnessed and must be fully aware of his obligations; and let him fear God his Lord when dictating and not diminish anything of it of the debt due. And if the debtor be a fool a squanderer or weak not up to dictating on account of old age or immaturity or unable to dictate himself on account of being dumb or not knowing the language and so forth then let his guardian the one in charge of his affairs be it a parent an executor a custodian or an interpreter dictate justly. And summon to bear witness the debt two witnesses men mature Muslim free men; or if the two witnesses be not men then one man and two women to bear witness such witnesses as you approve of on account of their piety and probity; the number of women is because of the fact so that if one of the two women errs forgets the testimony given their lesser astuteness and accuracy; the other the one remembering will remind her read fa-tudhakkira or fa-tudhkira the one that has forgotten — the ‘reminding’ clause is the reason for the choice of two women that is to say so that she may be reminded if she errs or strays into error because this forgetfulness is the cause of it a variant reading for an ‘that’ has the conditional in ‘if’ with the verb inflected as tudhakkiru ‘she will remind’ making it a new sentence the response to which follows; and let the witnesses not refuse whenever the mā of idhā mā ‘whenever’ is extra they are summoned to bear witness and take responsibility for the testimony; and be not disdainful lazy to write it down that which you have witnessed in truth for this frequently occurred be it small or great a little or much with its term that is the date on which it is due ilā ajlihi is a circumstantial qualifier referring to the pronominal suffix hā’ of taktubū-hu ‘you write it down’; that writing down is more equitable more just in God’s sight more upright for testimony that is to say that is more helpful in summoning witness because it contains the reminder; and nearer closer to attaining the desired state that you will not be in doubt with regard to the amount and the due dates; unless it be that there is trade carried out there and then tijāratun hādiratun a variant reading has tijāratan hādiratan in which case the nominal sentence is missing its subject and must be the pronoun for tijāra ‘trade’ that is hiya ‘it fem.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn, trans. Feras Hamza
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