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* تفسير Kashani Tafsir

{ وَأَنزَلْنَآ إِلَيْكَ ٱلْكِتَابَ بِٱلْحَقِّ مُصَدِّقاً لِّمَا بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ مِنَ ٱلْكِتَابِ وَمُهَيْمِناً عَلَيْهِ فَٱحْكُم بَيْنَهُم بِمَآ أَنزَلَ ٱللَّهُ وَلاَ تَتَّبِعْ أَهْوَآءَهُمْ عَمَّا جَآءَكَ مِنَ ٱلْحَقِّ لِكُلٍّ جَعَلْنَا مِنكُمْ شِرْعَةً وَمِنْهَاجاً وَلَوْ شَآءَ ٱللَّهُ لَجَعَلَكُمْ أُمَّةً وَاحِدَةً وَلَـٰكِن لِّيَبْلُوَكُمْ فِي مَآ آتَاكُم فَاسْتَبِقُوا الخَيْرَاتِ إِلَىٰ الله مَرْجِعُكُمْ جَمِيعاً فَيُنَبِّئُكُم بِمَا كُنتُمْ فِيهِ تَخْتَلِفُونَ }

And We have revealed to you the Book, the knowledge of the Criterion which is the manifestation of the differentiations of your perfection, with the truth confirming the Book that was before it, that is, the knowledge of the QurÌān, which is the undifferentiated knowledge that is fixed in your preparedness and watches over you by its manifestation; or [confirming] what was before it of the forms of knowledge that were sent down to prophets who preceded [you] in time. For in the case of Moses, when he returned to subsistence upon [his] annihilation by means of the divinely bestowed existence, it was the faculty of the soul and its authority that was dominant in him, which is why he struck his brother, as where God says and he seized his brother by the head, dragging him toward him [cf. Q. 7:150], and [why] when he asked for the self-disclosure he said my Lord, show me that I may behold You [Q.7:143]. Thus most of the Torah consisted of the knowledge of judgements, that which is concerned with the states of the soul and its refinement, its call being an exoteric one. In the case of Jesus, the dominant was the faculty of the heart and its light, which is why he disengaged himself from the apparel of this world, enjoined monasticism and would say to some of his disciples 'Whoever shall smite you on your [right] cheek, then turn to him who has smote you the other cheek also' [Matt. 5:39]. Most of the Gospel consisted of the knowledge of the self-disclosures of the attributes, character traits, admonitions, and counsels that are concerned with the states of the heart, its purification and its illumining, its call being an esoteric one. In the case of Muḥammad, peace and blessings be upon him, the dominant was the sway of the spirit and its light. Thus he brought together to all the noble character traits, completing of them, equitable in judgements and moderate therein. Thus the QurÌān encompassed what was contained in both [of the preceding] scriptures in terms of knowledge, judgements and gnoses, confirming all of it and watching over it, as well as [containing] supplementary material concerning the affirmation of Oneness, love [of God] and the call to the proclamation of the Oneness [of God].