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* تفسير Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs

{ مَّآ أَفَآءَ ٱللَّهُ عَلَىٰ رَسُولِهِ مِنْ أَهْلِ ٱلْقُرَىٰ فَلِلَّهِ وَلِلرَّسُولِ وَلِذِي ٱلْقُرْبَىٰ وَٱلْيَتَامَىٰ وَٱلْمَسَاكِينِ وَٱبْنِ ٱلسَّبِيلِ كَيْ لاَ يَكُونَ دُولَةً بَيْنَ ٱلأَغْنِيَآءِ مِنكُمْ وَمَآ آتَاكُمُ ٱلرَّسُولُ فَخُذُوهُ وَمَا نَهَاكُمْ عَنْهُ فَٱنتَهُواْ وَٱتَّقُواْ ٱللَّهَ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ شَدِيدُ ٱلْعِقَابِ }

(That which Allah giveth as spoil unto His messenger from the people of the townships) of 'Uraynah, Qurayzah, Banu'l-Nadir, Fadak and Khaybar, (it is for Allah) specifically and there is nothing in it for you (and His messenger) the command of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) regarding this is permissible, and this is why he made the spoils of Fadak and Khaybar an endowment for the needy people; it remained under his control during his lifetime, and after his death it came under the control of Abu Bakr al-Siddiq, and after him under 'Umar, 'Uthman and 'Ali respectively exactly as it was under the control of the Prophet (pbuh) and it remains so to this day. The Prophet (pbuh) also divided the spoils of Banu Qurayzah and Banu'l-Nadir on the poor from among the Emigrants (al-Muhajirun), he gave them according to their need and the need of their dependents (and for the near of kin) and he gave some of it to the needy among the Banu 'Abd al-Muttalib (and the orphans) and he gave some of it to the orphans, other than the orphans of Banu 'Abd al-Muttalib (and the needy) and gave some of it to the needy, other than the needy of the Banu 'Abd al-Muttalib (and the wayfarer) the guest and the passer-by, (that it become not a commodity) a division (between the rich among you) between the strong among you. (And whatsoever the messenger giveth you) of spoils, (take it) accept it; it is also said that this means: whatever the messenger commands you, act upon it. (And whatsoever he forbideth, abstain (from it). And keep your duty to Allah) fear Allah in that which He commanded you. (Lo! Allah is stern in reprisal) when He punishes; this is because they said to the Prophet (pbuh): “Take your share of the spoils and leave us to deal with the rest of it”.


Tafsir Ibn 'Abbas, trans. Mokrane Guezzou
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